Top Five Muscle Car Engines
Article by Mark Trotta
Forget about paint and chrome. On a muscle car, what really counts is what's under the hood, and the bigger the better. We're talking a lot of horsepower and not at all fuel efficient, but that's what makes them a muscle car. So here they are, in chronological order, my list of the top five muscle car engines ever produced.
1) Oldsmobile Rocket 1949-1964
The Olds "Rocket" 303 was introduced in 1949, an overhead valve V8 featuring a forged steel crankshaft, aluminum pistons with floating wrist-pins, and a dual-plane intake manifold. Power output was 135 horsepower and 263 pound-feet of torque.
The Rocket 88 series began when the Rocket V8 engine was placed inside Oldsmobile's lighter-bodied 76-series cars, marking the first time a larger-than 300ci engine was installed in a mid-size car.
Oldsmobile increased the Rocket's displacement to 324 cubic-inches in 1954, and then to 371 in 1956. The latter engine became standard equipment on all Olds models in 1957, and was produced through 1960. The largest of the Olds Rocket motors was the 394 version, produced from 1959 to 1964.
Read: The First Muscle Car
In 1957, Oldsmobile's J-2 Tri-Power option beat Pontiac's Tri-Power option to market by a matter of weeks. With three two-barrel carburetors on the 371 engine, the J-2 engine produced 300+ horsepower at 4,600 rpm, with 415-lb/ft at 3,000 rpm.
2) Pontiac V8 (Small-Journal) 1955-1976
The modern Pontiac V8 was introduced in 1955, displacing 287 cubic-inches. Over the years, displacement increased several times, but external dimensions remained about the same. The most popular of these small main journal V8's was the 389 (1959-1966) and it's replacement, the 400 (1967-1979).
Read: Pontiac GTO History
For the new 1964 Pontiac GTO, a 389 4-barrel engine was standard equipment. Optional was a Tri-power option, the same induction system Pontiac had offered on their full-size models since 1957. This was three two-barrel Rochester carburetors on a cast-iron intake manifold, each with it's own small, chrome air filter. Engine output was rated at 348 horsepower. With the GTO weighing around 3,500 pounds, power-to-weight ratio was nearly one-to-one. No car in its price range could match it's performance.
In it's most potent form, the Pontiac 400 put out 370 horsepower, as the 1969-1970 Ram-Air IV engine. These were available in both A-Body (GTO/Judge) and F-body (Firebird/Trans Am) Pontiacs. Production was very low; in 1969, just 1,517 A-bodies, 102 Firebirds and 55 Trans Ams were so equipped. In 1970, only 88 RA-IV motors found their way into Trans Ams. All Pontiac Ram Air engines were equipped with a single (but large) Quadrajet four-barrel.
Pontiac also made several large-journal V8 engines in 421, 428, and 455 displacements. Curiously, two versions of the 400 engine (Ram Air III and IV) made more horsepower than any large-journal engine did.
3) Ford FE Block 1958-1976
Identified by it's 5-bolt valve covers, the Ford FE engine family includes 332/352/360/361/390/391/406/410/427/428 displacements. Many carb/manifold options were offered, the most popular being a single 4-barrel, dual quad (two 4-bbl carburetors), and tri-power (three 2-bbl carburetors). Both CobraJet and Super CobraJet blocks had reinforced main bearing webs for higher RPM reliability.
Read: Muscle Car History
There were plenty of 390 and 428 equipped mid- and full-size Fords and Mercurys, as well as some Mustangs. Factory rated at 370 horsepower, the 428 Cobra Jet motors would easily put out over 400 horsepower with minor modifications. In a 1969 Mustang weighing 3500 pounds, acceleration was blindingly fast.
The Ford 428ci engine was successfully campaigned in NASCAR racing, in both Torino and Thunderbird models.
4) Chrysler Hemi 1964-1971
Huge by any standards, the 426 Hemi debuted on the racetrack in 1964 and first offered in street trim in 1966. It was the third generation of Chrysler Hemi engines. The hemi-head design was not a new concept, it was previously seen as far back as the 1948 Jaguar XK-120.
With a 4.25" bore and 3.75" stroke, the seven-litre OHV V-8 featured an iron block with four-bolt-main, cross-bolted caps. The crankshaft was made of forged-steel, as were the connecting rods. Stock compression ratio was 10.25:1. Its cubic capacity and power, combined with it's 800-plus pound weight, earned it the nickname "Elephant Engine".
Read: Dodge Charger History
For induction, the 426 street Hemi could be ordered with an aluminum dual-plane, dual-carb manifold and two Carter AFB four-barrel carburetors mounted in-line. With a solid-lifter camshaft, 425 horsepower was advertised, but actual output was closer to 500. Torque was listed at 490 lb/ft at 4000 rpm.
5) Chevrolet Big Block (1965-1976)
Known for creating awesome amounts of power and torque, the Chevrolet big-block was first offered in 1965 full-size models, Chevelles, and Corvettes. The hottest of the early big-blocks was the Z16, offered only with the Chevelle SS396. This was a hydraulic-lifter version of the L78 396 Corvette engine. Power output from the single 4-bbl motor was purposely under-rated at 375 horsepower, but most enthusiasts agree it was nearer 450 horsepower. Compression ratio was 11:1.
GM engineers purposely designed the engine compartment of the new 1967 Camaro to accommodate the 396 big-block. A 427 big-block was available in 1966 Corvettes, also optional in full-size Chevys from 1967-1969.
In 1970, the pinnacle year of the muscle car era, Chevrolet increased displacement of the 427 to 454 cubic-inches. Over the next six years, many versions of the 454 could be found in full size Chevys, Chevelles, El Caminos, Monte Carlos, Corvettes, and pickup trucks.
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The highest horsepower version of the 454 big-block was a 1970 Chevelle with the LS6 option. This solid lifter motor featured a four-bolt main block, forged steel crankshaft and connecting rods, and 11.25:1 compression pistons. Engine output was factory rated at 450 horsepower with 500 lb/ft of torque. Chevrolet produced about 4,500 LS6 Chevelles.
So there you have it, in my humble opinion, the top five muscle car engines of all time.
All of these engines are still in very high demand today, so much so that several of them, 50 years out of production, are currently being reproduced.
In 1951, Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats recorded the song "Rocket 88". Aside from being one of the greatest car songs of all time, many consider it to be the very first rock and roll song ever.
Read: Best Car Songs Of All Time